Made to measure the quality of products LVD Low Voltage Test The Low Voltage Directive is in accordance with the provisions of the Regulation on Electrical Equipment Designed for Use within Certain Voltage Limits (2006 / 95 / AT) and a quality certificate is issued when appropriate conditions are determined.
The Low Voltage Directive (LVD) adopted in 1973 was an important step taken in this way. The 1990 and then the CE Marking are required for free movement within the EU market. CE is the certification of the conformity of the produced product to the EU common market.
With its short name Low Voltage Regulationis related to the safety of electric vehicles. This regulation covers electric vehicles which use or produce voltage between 50 Volt AC (75 Volt DC) and 1000 Volt AC (1500 Volt DC). All companies that produce these electric vehicles can place CE marking on their products when they meet the safety requirements and conformity assessment processes contained in this regulation.
The first step in this regard has been with the Low Voltage Directive (LVD) issued in 1973. The standards contained in this decree are the minimum conditions necessary to ensure life safety. 1990 is the year in which the use of CE marking in products is required for free movement within the European Union.
It is forbidden to place CE marking on the products that do not meet the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive. To an unsuitable product CE marking the sanction of the product may extend from the market to this product.
In this period when the harmonization works for the European Union are rapidly continuing, the standardization studies in our country have gained importance. Especially the companies that produce machinery and white goods need to be aware of LVD tests. These companies determine the safety of their products by LVD tests and only then put the product on the market.
In order to perform the LVD test, in order to comply with the Low Voltage Directive, the companies must have provided continuity in the production activities in accordance with the standard. Then they must prepare a technical file. They are required to make an assessment according to an appropriate standard. If there is no appropriate standard, then they should evaluate the safety of the product and make the necessary arrangements.
Examples of LVD tests are:
- Insulation Test
- High Voltage Test
- Leakage Current Test
- Earth Line Continuity Test
Some of the standards based on LVD tests are as follows:
- TS EN 60335 Security in Home and Similar Devices
- TS EN 60204 Safety in Electrical Equipment of Machines
- TS EN 60950 Security in Information Technology Devices
- TS EN 60601 Safety in Electrical Medical Devices
In the standardization process, TS EN 60335 standard is related to white goods manufacturers and TS EN 60204 standard is related to machinery manufacturers. These electrical tests are carried out on the products. In addition, test results are reported for compliance with standards. Although the tests are essentially the same in both standards, their construction and applied values are different.
Tests and Examinations
- Power measurement
- Label review
- Temperature test
- Leakage current test
- Electrical resistance
- Soil continuity
- Insulation resistance
- Error conditions
- Thermal stability
- Electrical resistance for internal conductors
- Measurement of insulation intervals
- Ball pressure test
- Capacity discharge test
- In-rushcurrent experiment
- Mechanical experiments
- Component evaluation (transformer, etc.)
- Electric field measurement
- EN 50366 test
- Balance test
- GlowWire experiment
- Flammability test
The presence of a CE mark on the elements used in a machine is not sufficient for the CE marking of that machine. It is generally assumed that this is the case, but the CE marking is used, but the new product needs to be inspected according to the relevant standards for the CE marking.
Leakage Current Test
Due to the high resistance of the ground line or the connection of the cable connected to the ground with another place, the leakage current cannot be removed from the electrical installation. In such cases, the leakage current becomes a very dangerous situation for human life and begins to pose a threat. If the leakage occurs over the 30 mA, it is not even internal to avoid irreversible problems. Almost every device and each machine creates leakage current in itself. In order to prevent these hazards that may occur here, an earth fault / residual current protection must be created in addition to the overcurrent protection so that automatic separation can take place. This system must be provided to minimize damage and damage to ground fault currents under the overcurrent protection detection level in products and equipment. When setting up these devices, they must be kept as low as possible and compatible with the correct operation of the equipment.
RCD devices are detected by the manufacturers before and the opening current threshold value between 30 mA and 500 mA varies and when an isolation error occurs in a part of the system or devices when the residual current reaches the device to the specified opening threshold value of the defective part or device from the supply source separates. The disengagement is usually carried out immediately between 20 ms and 50 ms, ie, between 50 and 1 for 2,5 Hz.
It is of great importance to check that the RCD devices that are used during the installation of the grounding installations, that is, the RCD devices open at the correct time and at the correct values. RCD leakage protection devices are one of the most important measures for human security. However, it is of great importance to protect the electrical devices against short circuit fault currents in the electrical installation.
Soil Continuity Test - Ground Test
The soil continuity test is performed between the PE (protection) conductor and accessible metal parts. The aim is to ensure the safety of the person or operator using the product at any possible electrical leakage. 50Hz-10A current injection at least 10sn. The measured resistance value should be less than 0,1 Ohm. For this case, in an electrical panel or in an electrically operated machine, it is desirable to have a transmission with the earth conductor at the furthest distance to this conductor. In addition, this transmission is required to continue continuously. This leak is required to flow from the ground conductor for safety of the operator or the operator in case of a possible electrical leak in the panel cover or in the housing of the machine. The voltage drop here is measured by applying a constant current of 10 amperes between the earth conductor and the farthest distance. The resistance is calculated according to the ohm's law in the light of the measured data. Here the resistance has to be lower than the 0,1 ohm.
The main idea of the protection of human life is the protection of the human life, against damage caused by electricity by the operating personnel and other items. Before a new product or operation is taken, it is necessary to observe qualitative (experimental and measurement) aspects during the assembly and construction phase before commissioning.
Whether the relevant product or operating elements meet the safety standards, whether the selection or installation of the elements is made according to the manufacturer's data, whether there are any damages affecting the safety, whether the protection measures are taken against the dangerous body currents, whether the cable, the conductor and the bars are selected according to the current carrying capacity etc. check the issues.
The product or facility in the non-energized condition should be subjected to qualitative monitoring before quantitative observation is made. Quantitative observation; measurement and control concepts. It is made with various measurement and testing instruments.
In accordance with the Grounding Regulation in the Electrical Installations, the following issues are required to be measured and tested; Continuity Tests, Measurement of Insulation Resistance, Measurement of Earth Resistivity, Measurement of Ground Resistance, Loop Impedance Measurement, RCD Test, PSC (short circuit current) and PFC (probable leakage current) Test.
Insulation Insulation Resistance Test
Insulation must be provided between the sections which have voltage in a working environment and those that have no voltage. In cases where insulation is not provided, this situation constitutes a great danger in terms of safety of life because there will be electricity at many points where electrical energy should not be present. This is especially important when the devices are operating. In order to prevent such dangerous situations, the devices and their parts must be insulated.
When calculating the insulation resistance (insulation resistance), a constant voltage is applied to the system to be measured and the current value in the system is measured. The ratio of voltage and current values measured here gives us the ı Insulation Resistance Burada. The insulation resistance between the conductors of the power circuit and the protective interception circuit must not be less than the insulation resistance 500 Minin (megaohm) measured by 1 V (Volt). These tests and measurements can also be applied to other parts of the electrical equipment.
What is insulating material?
If it is mentioned electrically, it can be defined as materials that do not conduct electricity. Essentially, each substance is conductive, but the substances have a certain strength limit. That is, there is an insulating resistance. The electric current above this limit value behaves as conductive and conducts electricity. The conformity of this situation is checked by TÜRCERT related test devices and the conformity of the products is presented to the manufacturer or the manufacturer to be reported and put into the technical file of the product.
Isolation Test Methods
Dielectric Insulation Power Test: The test expressed here is the down Endurance Testi test. A voltage value above the operating voltage of the product is applied to the device for a certain period of time. The tested device must withstand the stress it is exposed to during this time. The resistance value (() cannot be measured by this method.
High Voltage Insulation Test: It is tried to determine the values of Insulation Resistance by selecting a voltage that will not damage the cable system of the product. Advanced devices may have different analysis tools.
High Voltage Test
The purpose of the high voltage test is to test the resistance of the insulation material which prevents the contact of any accessible metal parts under normal conditions on a machine or device to the operator or user. The test voltage applied here is AC 50Hz and the voltage values vary between 1000-5000V. The short-circuited phase and neutral conductor in the panel are made between the PE (protection) conductor. The test is automatically stopped when the limit current value (interchangeable between 1mA ~ 500mA) is reached on the test device. With this current flow expressed by the standards, insulation is prevented from penetration. This value is usually set to 5mA.
The greatest test voltage applied during the test shall be a value twice the declared supply voltage of the equipment or to a value of 1000 V (whichever is greater). The largest test voltage applied must be applied between the conductors of the power circuit and the protective shut-off circuit for a period of time, such as about 1s. It is observed that the rules are provided if there is no destructive discharge. All components and devices not manufactured to withstand the test voltage must be disconnected from the system during the test test. Components and devices to be subjected to voltage testing according to their product standards may be removed during the test test.
TÜRCERT provides professional services for Earthquake Test, Torak Continuity Test, Leakage Current Test, High Voltage Test, Voltage Drop Test, Insulation Resistance Test, Continuity Test, Functional Tests, Discharge Time Determination process for electrical safety tests.
The safety of users or operators is very important because the test voltages applied in all these tests and measurements are high. For this reason, the device used must be CE marked and comply with EN / IEC 61010-1 and EN 50081-1 standards. Devices with no CE marking can compromise the safety of the user, and the reliability of all data and results obtained is disrupted. Another dimension of the procedure is the reporting of all these data. After the tests are carried out, all the results obtained should be reported, kept in the technical files of the products, references should be made to the reports in the declaration of conformity and these reports should be kept available to the auditors or customers when necessary. TÜRCERT offers professional services for all these tests and reporting.
|Test Class||Standard Service|
|Information Technology Devices||IEC / EN 60950-1 and EN 60950-1 / A1: 2010|
|Audio - Video and Similar Electronic Devices||IEC / EN 60065|
|Electrical Devices Used in Home and Similar Places||IEC / EN 60335-1|
|Electrical Equipment of Machines (Excluding EMC)||2006 / 42 / AT Machinery Directive (IEC / EN 60204-1)|
|Measurement, Control and Electrical Devices Used in Laboratory||IEC / EN 61010-1|
|LED modules and safety features for general lighting||IEC / EN 62031, IEC 62560|
|Electric Medical Equipment||IEC / EN 60601-1|
|Uninterruptible Power Systems||IEC / EN 62040-1|
|Electrical Equipment of Machines (excluding EMC section)||IEC / EN 60204-1|
TÜRCERT certification body provides certification services and consultancy and training services as well as technical services to companies in need. In this context, you can rely on the TÜRCERT certification body, which has an experienced and expert staff in LVD Low Voltage Test and other similar test studies.
The regulations for LVD Low Voltage Directive Tests are published. To review this regulation, you can review the details from the PDF file below.
Regulation on 2014-35-EU for LVD (Opens with Adobe Reader)